Database of Ultracool Parallaxes

                                                      updated December 24, 2016


This page houses a complete inventory of all ultracool dwarfs (late-M, L, T, and Y dwarfs) with measured parallaxes.  The data presented are based on the compilations in Dupuy & Liu (2012), Dupuy & Kraus (2013), and Liu, Dupuy, & Allers (2016), with occasional updates from the literature.  The data tables here are intended to be a comprehensive collection of all useful data for ultracool dwarfs with direct distance measurements, including:

  1. Astrometry (R.A., Dec., parallax, and proper motion)

  2. MKO photometry (YJHKL’M’), with YJHK data synthesized from available spectra if no published MKO measurements

  3. 2MASS photometry (JHKs), with data synthesized from available spectra when not detected in 2MASS

  4. Spitzer/IRAC photometry (channels 1, 2, 3, and 4)

  5. WISE All-Sky Catalog photometry, including upper limits and data quality flags

  6. SDSS photometry from DR7 onward

  7. Spectral types (optical and near-IR)

  8. Flags for unusual objects (e.g., low gravity, YMG members, low metallicity, etc.)

  9. High-angular resolution imaging information

  10. Companion information

If you use the data compiled here, please remember to:

  1. (1)cite the original sources (all references provided in the tables below);

  2. (2)acknowledge this compilation by citing the Database of Ultracool Parallaxes maintained by Trent Dupuy; Dupuy & Liu (2012) (for field objects and binaries); Dupuy, & Kraus (2013) (for late-T and Y dwarfs); and Liu, Dupuy, & Allers (2016) (for young objects and companions).

Data files

(618 objects tabulated, as of 12/24/2016)

Excel table containing all data                 vlm-plx-excel.xlsx

FITS table containing all data                  vlm-plx-all.fits

ASCII table containing all data                 vlm-plx-all.txt

ASCII table of MKO and 2MASS weighted averages  vlm-plx-niravg.txt

ASCII table of IRAC and WISE weighted averages  vlm-plx-miravg.txt

explanation of all files                        README.txt

ASCII table containing reference key            vlm-plx-refs.txt

UPDATED!! IDL code for polynomial relations

IDL code for parsing spectral type strings

IDL code for creating spectral type strings

IDLASTRO routine modified to read >100 columns

tarball of all data files: vlm-plx-data.tar.gz


Maintained by Trent Dupuy.  Please send comments to

  1. 2012-01-13: First posting based on Dupuy & Liu (2012, ApJ, revised arxiv:1201.2465v1).

  2. 2012-06-09: Updated with final version of Dupuy & Liu (2012, ApJS, accepted arxiv:1201.2465v2) and also includes parallaxes from Faherty et al. (2012).

  3. 2013-09-09: Updated with numerous parallax results from Shkolnik et al. (2012), Marsh et al. (2013), and Dupuy & Kraus (2013), along with several single-parallax papers (Faherty et al., Tinney et al., Beamin et al., Kirkpatrick et al., Luhman et al.).  Also includes new stellar companions with parallaxes (Vigan et al., Rameau et al., Janson et al., Gomes et al., Gauza et al., Wright et al., Luhman et al., Burningham et al.).  Added Ross 248 (M5.5 at 3 pc) and updated CFBDSIR J1458+10AB properties.

  4. 2016-12-24: Updated with compilation of young ultracool dwarfs and substellar (brown dwarf and exoplanet) companions from Liu, Dupuy & Allers (2016), as well as several other parallax papers including Beichman et al. (2014), Dieterich et al. (2014), Ducourant et al. (2014), Riedel et al. (2014), Sahlmann et al. (2014), Tinney et al. (2014), Faherty et al. (2016), and Weinberger et al. (2016). Increased from 411 to 618 objects, with many young objects added and many other objects' parallaxes improved. Special thanks to Michael Liu and Will Best for assistance.


MKO J-band absolute magnitude vs. J-H color for normal field dwarfs:

All permutations of color-magnitude diagrams from Dupuy & Liu (2012) are available in a tarball: vlm-plx-cmd.tar.gz

WISE band 1 absolute magnitude vs. W1-W2 color for normal field dwarfs:

MKO J-band absolute magnitude vs. spectral type for normal field dwarfs:

All absolute magnitude vs. spectral type diagrams from Dupuy & Liu (2012) are available in a tarball: